Windows XP And Vista On The LAN Together

File and Printer Sharing in Windows Vista is not extremely different from File and Printer Sharing in Windows XP. There are new features, and wizard procedures, that work on top of Windows XP features and procedures. If you have a working network, with one or more computers that use Windows Networking, you probably know enough to get started.

There will be challenges though. One predictable challenge is the availability (or lack of availability) of drivers for devices that are operating system sensitive, like network adapters. This has inspired various attitudes, even rants, among the user community.

Computers running Windows Vista use the same layered network as previous versions of Windows, so start by reviewing the principles of layered network design and installation, and of layered network problem solving. And review various issues that affected Windows Networking on computers running Windows XP.

>> Top

System Updates Issues
With Windows Vista, as with Windows XP, Microsoft will issue periodic (and monthly) updates. Most updates are for security issues, and others for operability and / or stability. All updates are necessary, if recommended for your edition of Vista, and some may have a direct effect on your problem.

As an interim measure, possibly before an actual Service Pack, Microsoft has started issuing compatibility, performance, and reliability fixes, covering a variety of issues with Vista.

>> Top

Connectivity Issues
By default, computers running Vista will set the Broadcast flag, in the DHCP Discover packets, On. If your DHCP server (NAT router, or non-Microsoft dedicated server) doesn't support DHCP Broadcast, you'll have various problems - your computer may never get an IP address, or your IP connectivity may come and go unpredictably. To make your Vista computer compatible with Windows XP, (KB928233): turn the DHCP Broadcast flag Off. Besides the DHCP Broadcast difference, be aware of an interesting (KB931550): timing difference between the Windows Vista and XP DHCP clients.

One of the most interesting features in Vista (my opinion anyway) is the ability to dynamically determine Receive Window size for each individual Internet connection. Users of high speed broadband connections will be especially interested in this. Unfortunately, it appears that RWin AutoTuning may be a bit problematic. This setting has been observed to affect both LAN and WAN connectivity, and can cause instability, or lack of connectivity.

On laptop computers, and other computers with multiple network adapters, you'll see an inaccurate / inconsistent network status indicator, when the computer is first started.

Like every newer version of Windows, Windows Vista will use more resources on the host computer, and on any peripherally connected computers and routers. If your peripheral network equipment like routers are becoming aged, you'll be advised to upgrade or replace whatever you can.

The IPX/SPX Protocol is not provided in Windows Vista, though Novell does now provide a Netware client for Vista. NetBEUI, on the other hand, is now a part of history.

>> Top

Visibility Issues
One of the new features of Windows Vista is the Network Map, which runs at the Link Layer of the OSI Network Model, and offers functions similar to The Dude. The Network Map uses a discovery protocol called Link-Layer Topology Discovery (LLTD), which is not a normal part of Windows XP.

To be able to see a Windows XP server from a Vista client, using the Vista Network Map, you need to install (KB922120): the LLTD Responder on any Windows XP computers. The LLTD Responder isn't available for Windows 2000, so you won't be able to see a Windows 2000 server from a Vista client, using the Vista Network Map.

Even if you can't see a Windows XP or 2000 computer in the Network Map, though, you'll still be able to see it in Network Neighborhood / My Network Places, aka the Network window (Start - Network) in Windows Vista. And even if you can see a computer in the Network Map, you may still have to work on name resolution, or on sharing permissions, if you are going to actually access its resources.

The simplest visibility will be enjoyed with all computers in the same workgroup. By default, Windows Vista uses "Workgroup", while Windows XP uses "MSHome". If you leave workgroup names at default, the other computers will be visible in the Network (My Network Places aka Network Neighbourhood) wizard, but they won't be seen immediately, when you open the wizard. You may have to look under Entire Network - Microsoft Windows Network, for the different workgroups used by each set of computers. And with having multiple browse domains (workgroups), your browser infrastructure will be slightly more complex.

>> Top

Using A Windows Vista Client
Under Windows Vista, the personal storage (personal profile and other files and folders) container has been changed, from "C:\Documents and Settings", to "C:\Users". The folder "C:\Documents And Settings" will continue to exist, for backward compatibility, only as a junction point. On a mixed LAN, I would very carefully test sharing of either "C:\Documents and Settings" (with a Windows Vista client), or "C:\Users" (with a Windows XP client), before committing myself.

>> Top

Setting Up A Windows Vista Server
If you're adding a computer running Windows Vista to your network, you have to set it up as a server, so you can access it from your other computers. You do this using the Network and Sharing Center wizard, accessed by Start - right-click on Network, and select Properties. This is equivalent to running the Network Setup Wizard, in Windows XP.

  • Set the Network Location Type to "Private". This requires that your computers are secure, behind a perimeter firewall or a NAT router, and opens the standard Vista personal firewall to allow Server Message Blocks (SMBs) to pass between the computers. If your computer is directly connected to your Internet service, either get a NAT router, or leave the Network Location Type set to Public (which will prevent you from networking this computer).
  • Having set the NLT to "Private", you must now designate which services you wish for your server to provide or use. You should verify each setting before continuing, and change it if necessary.
    • File sharing.
    • Public folder sharing.
    • Printer sharing.
    • Password Protected Sharing (PPS) affects the above 3 services. Disabling PPS is the equivalent of enabling Simple File Sharing, in Windows XP.
  • Setup shared folders and printers. If you enabled PPS, you should setup access for individual users. If you disabled PPS, you setup access for "Guest" or "Everyone". Since Vista security is "deny by default (permit by demand)", "Everyone" doesn't automatically have access to newly created shares. Check the Security tab, for each share created, if you disable PPS.
  • Whether you setup the server with PPS Enabled (aka Advanced File Sharing, in Windows XP), or PPS Disabled, make sure that the account used for sharing is activated for network use.
    • If you Enable PPS, you can use either the Guest account, or a non-Guest account of your choice, but the chosen account has to be activated for network use.
    • If you Disable PPS, then the Guest account must be activated for network use. By default, Guest is disabled. If your server provides network access through the Guest account, be aware of its limitations.
    • Whether you use Guest, or a non-Guest account for access, the account used has to be added, explicitly, under Security, and under Sharing.
  • On a server running Windows Vista, the Administrative (Hidden) volume share of "C$ ("D$", etc) isn't defined, by default.

For an overview of the above, see Microsoft: File and Printer Sharing in Windows Vista

>> Top

Setting Up A Windows XP Server
If you have just one computer besides your computer running Vista, you may have to setup your first computer as a server too. On a computer running Windows XP, run the Network Setup Wizard. For a server connected behind a NAT router, select
This computer connects to the Internet through another computer on my network or through a residential gateway.
Running the NSW, and making that selection, is similar to setting the Vista NLT to "Private".

>> Top

Common Issues
Other than the network setup wizards used, Vista will be pretty similar to XP. You'll have the same challenges with Windows Networking.

>> Top

Editions Of Windows Vista and XP
There are 5 editions of Windows XP, which are basically 2 variants - Home and Pro.
  • XP Home is the equivalent of Vista Basic Home, with PPS permanently disabled.
  • XP Pro can use Advanced File Sharing (similar to PPS Enabled), or Simple File Sharing (similar to PPS Disabled).
  • The other 3 editions - Media Center, Tablet, and Pro x64 - are all variants of XP Pro, in terms of file sharing functionality.
  • With XP Pro, and with all editions of Vista, you can have Guest or non-Guest authentication. Note the limitations of Guest authentication carefully, some limitations aren't as obvious as they should be.
  • Whether you use the Guest account, or a non-Guest account, for authentication, make sure that the account used is properly prepared for network access.

There are also 5 well known editions of Windows Vista, plus several obscure ones which we probably won't encounter. The different editions of Windows Vista are completely different from Windows XP, in feature set differentation.

>> Top

Windows Vista and Older / Other Operating Systems
If you also have one or more computers running Windows 9x (95, 98, ME), you'll need to be aware of a significant difference between Windows XP and Vista, in Microsoft Windows And Authentication Protocols. But focus your mind on the future - Windows 95 / 98 / ME have a limited life span.

This will be a problem, too, if you have a Network Attached Storage (NAS) device. Many NAS devices, with unknown authentication abilities, will be a similar challenge. Some NAS devices will also try to act as a master browser on your network, and will cause master browser conflicts, and unreliable displays in Network (aka My Network Places).

>> Top

Windows Vista and Printers
If you are setting up your mixed LAN specifically to share a printer, note the additional challenges involved in sharing printers. Get file sharing working, first, then concentrate on getting working printer drivers that support Windows Vista. On a mixed network, the printer will have to support both Windows Vista, and Windows XP. And drivers for the client will probably differ from drivers for the server.

If you're having problems with printing from a computer running Vista, and the printer is shared by another computer, read Network Printing From A Windows Vista Computer.

>> Top

Windows Vista and Security
Depending upon what personal firewall you are using on your Windows Vista computer, you may have to set the firewall manually. It appears that Windows OneCare does not setup seamlessly, as Windows Firewall does, when you set the Network Location Type. And a recent change (September 2007) in Internet Explorer appears to affect Windows Networking access between computers.

>> Top

More References
For the above issues, and more, see

>> Top

20 comments:

Glenn said...

You've got a lot of good information here, but some of it appears to be wrong. Specifically, your blog states that "Network Neighborhood" should show the XP machine, but Vista does not even have "Network Neighborhood". My Vista Home Premium wireless laptop cannot see my XP Media Center desktop in the view labeled "Network", but I found the "Network Map" ("View Full Map" link, pretty obscure) and there I see the XP machine as hanging off a switch. Also I did install LLTD on XP and this once appeared to help, but no longer.

It would be great if you could revise this blog with new lessons learned from the debacle known as Vista.

Chuck said...

Thanks for the prod, Glenn. I call every network map "Network Neighbourhood" - I still haven't forgiven Microsoft for calling it "My Network Places".

So now, it's called "Network view", or just "Network", when it's named at all.

I'd be interested in seeing your "browstat status" and "ipconfig /all" logs from both computers. You have either a NetBT / firewall problem, or a master browser conflict, I'd bet.

I don't think that Vista is a debacle just yet, though I haven't gotten used to LLTD and the "Network Map".

.:: m3rLinEz ::. said...

Hi,

I found the info in this entry very helpful and I just solved my home network name resolution problem (I have a laptop running Windows XP with nodetype set to "peer-to-peer")

Thank you very much!

Kraig Grayson said...

I was not aware of all these issues as it concerned Vista integrating with XP. I am happy I came upon your article as it has helped me tremendously to iron out some of the issues I am facing. Keep up the good work and I am looking forward to more of your articles.

Xenobius said...

Hello,

I have found very useful information in this post, however I have a bit different problem. I have connected my Vista laptop and Desktop running XP with a crosscable. The result Vista Network map created normal network map with both computers, but they don't see each other on My network Places. Any ideas?

Chuck said...

Xenobius,

What you're describing is called a browsing problem, and the immediate cause is generally a master browser conflict.

The base cause of a master browser conflict is usually something like a NetBT setting or a personal firewall problem.

I'd start by checking Windows Firewall. Or do you, maybe, have OneCare? That's another known problem.

Xenobius said...

Thank you for information, I'll check that.

Xenobius said...

Hello again,
I've made some progress since my last post, however, the problem is not completely solved yet. I managed to connect to the internet from laptop(Vista) via the DesktopPC(XP), but still I can't share the files. When I open "view workgroup computers" I see the laptop, but when I try to open it I get the message "The network path was not found". When I check the Network on laptop, the DesktopPC is displayed as "Residential Gateway Device".

Thanks in advance,
Xenobius

Chuck said...

Xenobius,

OK, it's time for you to post in the Vista Networking forum, either using the Google interface, or the Microsoft interface. Or have you posted already?

When you post, describe each computer, and provide documentation - logs from "browstat status", "ipconfig /all", "net config server", and "net config workstation", from each computer, will be useful. Read this article, and linked articles, and follow instructions precisely (download browstat!) (and note how to use the command window in Vista).

Xenobius said...

Ok. Thanks for the links. I certainly try to post there.

Thanks again and good luck,
Xenobius

Yuval said...

Hey Chuck
I'm having serious problems and I was wondering if u could help me...

I have a Vista machine connected directly via ethernet card to an ADSL modem. I have another ethernet card on the machine connected via crossover cable to an XP machine.

I'm trying to set up internet on the XP machine through the Vista, but it's not working:
1. I ran the networking wizard (just like u said) on the XP.
2. I configured ICS on the Vista through the internet connection, stating that the second ethernet card connects the computer to the network.

So what this does, is set up the second connection as public. But, this works, and the xp has internet! The problem is what happens after i restart - the Vista for some reason forgets it's an DHCP and doesn't give the XP an IP address, so it can't connect. I would've given the XP a static address (192.168.0.2), but internet sharing on XP only works if the computer sets its IP automatically.

And if I manually set the Vista connection as private, it doesn't give the XP and IP.

Any ideas? :)

Chuck said...

Yuval,

You have all Ethernet network components. Why is it that you aren't using a NAT router between the modem and the two computers?

A NAT router isn't that expensive, and it's way easier to get working than ICS.

StuckInReality said...

Chuck,

Great post. You sound like you have Vista networking down pretty well. I thought that I did too until I tried to login to an old Windows 2000 Server. I can get to the login screen on the Vista machine, type in a known good username and password, and I get the "Login unsuccessful" error. Other computers (running XP) have no trouble logging in to the old W2K server.
I have been told that Vista simply cannot log in to a W2K server by design. Is that true?

StuckInReality said...

Is it true that Vista CANNOT login to a Windows 2000 Server?

Even when XP machines have no problem loging into an old W2K Server, Vista machines always reports "Login unsuccessful", even with known good usernames and passwords.

Oddly, Vista will login to Linux servers and even Windows 2000 workstations.

Chuck said...

Stuck,

Look at the authentication level issue, but look at it with the Vista computer being a client (accessing resources) not as a server (providng and protecting shared resources).

Computers running Vista are perfectly capable of logging in to Windows Server 2000, 2003, or 2007.

SAURABH CHADHA said...

Hello,

I have got a laptop installed with vista & other machines instaled with xp...I have got a networking issue... I can open shared drives of the xp computer in my vista laptop... but shared drives in vista laptop cannot be open in xp computer but the drives are shown in xp computer but when i click it it gives an error that it is not accecible...

Chuck said...

Saurabh,

This is a question that neeeds to be explored in a forum conversation, in detail.

Might I suggest DSLR Forums: Networking. It's reasonably moderated, so not a lot of spamming and trolling, and reasonably kept on topic and clean discussions.

Alternately, try my forum Nitecruzr Dot Net - Networking.

mike said...

Your post says "If you're adding a computer running Windows Vista to your network, you have to set it up as a server, so you can access it from your other computers."

It sounds like you are saying the Vista computer has to be set up as a server, even if all you want to do is use that computer to access other computers on the network (not share anything on the Vista computer). Is that what you meant to imply? I don't want my Vista computer to be a server, I just want to be able to use it to access other PCs in my workgroup.

NC said...

Hello,

First of all, excellent blog. I am trying to play Age of Empires 2 on a LAN network between Windows XP and Vista. The two computers can ping each other perfectly, share files and view each other on the network map. However when I try and create a LAN game on either computer - the other cannot see it and vice versa. I've even tried this with firewalls off to no avail. Any suggestions? My router is a Thomson Speedtouch 585v7 and both computers can access the internet and each other perfectly.

Chuck said...

NC,

What "viewer" do you use to "see" one computer from the other? Is it a function within "Age of Empires"? Or is it the "Windows Explorer" display aka "File Manager" (Windows Key - e)?

The first will be a proprietary function within "Age Of Empires". The second will involve the Windows Networking "NT Browser", which is one of the objects of much mystery, which I describe elsewhere within this blog. See the links below.

http://networking.nitecruzr.net/2005/04/nt-browser-or-why-cant-i-always-see.html

http://networking.nitecruzr.net/2006/09/nt-browser-and-windows-networking.html

http://nitecruzr.blogspot.com/2005/10/irregularities-in-workgroup-visibility.html