The messages sent and received between your computer, and the Internet web servers that you're accessing, may go thru dozens of networks. The Internet is, by design, dynamic. The networks that you use, to access any server, may change within seconds.
Any one of those networks might have a restriction on the maximum message (packet) size that it will accept. Each computer has a setting, called the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU), which controls how large it may make any packet. The larger your packets, the fewer packets required for sending or receiving a web page, but the greater chance any network have a problem with your packet size.
Setting the MTU on your computer can be a double edged sword.
- If you make the MTU too large, some networks will split (fragment) your packets. Some servers may have a problem with fragmented packets, causing the dreaded "Server not available..." error, or other symptoms.
- If you make the MTU too small, your computer will send and receive small packets. You'll be able to access any server, thru any network, but a web page will require too many packets. The speed that your web pages download will make you think you're not connected at all.
If you have a problem accessing some websites (or running some programs like email or IM), but not others, or if this problem seems to come and go, you may have an MTU setting problem. The best known examples of this problem are those with dial-up or PPPoE sevice, or those using ICS. An MTU issue can affect anybody, though, and different people (computers) will, almost certainly, be affected differently, with different web sites being unreachable at different times.
Here are several articles, of differing technical detail and level, discussing the issue further, and offering ways to diagnose and correct it. Read through each one, until you find one that explains the issue to your liking. This list, like each of the ones that I create, is alphabetised.
- Allen Smith: ICS Web-browsing Problem: the Real Solution.
- Annoyances: Can't access some websites while using a shared PPPoE connection.
- Microsoft: (KB319661): Connectivity Problems on ICS Clients When You Use a PPPoE Connection on a Windows XP ICS Host.
- Microsoft: (KB314825): How to Troubleshoot Black Hole Router Issues.
- NetHeaven: Sites With Broken / Working Path MTU Discovery
- Nitecruzr Dot Net: The MTU Setting Problem - Why Is It So Obscure?
When you get ready to adjust the MTU setting, make it easy on yourself. Download DrTCP, from DSLReports, and use it to make the changes for you. Simply copy the downloaded file into any convenient folder, and run it from there.
You'll be changing the "MaxMTU" or "MTU" value under Adapter Settings. If you have multiple network adapters, be sure to choose the one that provides the Internet service. For instructions about what values to change MTU to, see the articles linked above. Read all 6, and pick the one that you're most comfortable with.
Note: An MTU problem can be confused with, or masked by, a DNS problem, or LSP / Winsock Corruption. If you're here after trying the above procedures, unsuccessfully, consider each of the latter possibilities.